MALLET

From the MALLET homepage : MALLET is a Java-based package for statistical natural language processing, document classification, clustering, topic modeling, information extraction, and other machine learning applications to text.

We chose to represent two distinct topics within the letters we obtained in Special Collections at Washington and Lee University using topic modeling. Used for this purpose, MALLET searches for topics in data set.
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TOPIC 1

lee university future women study hope raised position member successful idea respond expect fewer individuals top obtaining greatly conviction

Analysis

This model focuses on the study concerning Washington and Lee’s  future contending with other top universities in the United States. With the falling rate of college-going males and academic quality at W&L, John D. Wilson and the Board of Trustees aimed to respond in a timely manner to address these concerns to secure a successful future for the university. Their solution to this concern was coeducation.

TOPIC 2

alumni board president quality male experience student change people education support opinion found encourage size important age place present

Analysis

This model concerns how the educational environment and experience would change if women were to come to Washington and Lee University.  Continuing academic excellence of W&L’s past involved questions of the school’s surely changing academic and atmospheric qualities in 1985 with the switch to coeducation.

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Source: McCallum, Andrew Kachites. “MALLET: A Machine Learning for Language Toolkit.” http://mallet.cs.umass.edu. 2002.

Map of Alumni Responses

John D. Wilson took office as President of Washington and Lee University on January 17, 1983 after serving as President of Wells College and Executive Vice President of Virginia Tech. In the Spring of 1983, President Wilson issued a “Report to Alumni”, which included the topic of coeducation at Washington and Lee. In October of 1983, President Wilson addressed alumni at an Alumni Leadership Conference on the subject. Wilson reintroduced the hot topic for many reasons, but mainly because of, “the decline in ‘yield,’ that is, the decline we have experienced in the number of accepted applicants who finally matriculate.” In a letter, the President explained his concern over “some incipient erosion which W&L has suffered in its academic standing these past few years and its difficulty to enroll the very top students.” A binder in the Special Collections department in Leyburn Library at Washington and Lee holds 99 letters between President Wilson and alumni after his initial request for feedback on the subject of coeducation from 1983.

The Mapplication tool provides a visual representation of the location from which forty-two alumni wrote letters to President Wilson about their view on coeducation at Washington and Lee. Each point on the map represents the location of one alumnus and his view, marked as either a red “con” or a purple “pro.” To preserve anonymity, we refrained from uploading the letters onto the map, but they can be accessed in a single binder in Special Collections. Before producing the map, we hypothesized that Southern states would demonstrate a stronger distaste for coeducation. The binder provides the 99 letters received in response to President Wilson’s request for alumni feedback. Of those, 41 letters (~41%) wished for coeducation, while 50 letters (~50%) hoped it would remain an all-male institution and 8 were not explicit in their vision for the decision. We mapped 42 letters: 17 (40%) of which are “Pro” and 25 (60%) are “Con.” Characteristic of a Digital Humanities project, the Mapplication immediately and succinctly visualizes the trend of pro and con letters and proved our hypothesis correct. The Southern states demonstrate a trend of “con” attitudes toward coeducation.

Letter 23 and Board of Trustees Statement on Coeducation

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 23_Redacted

Letter 23

Board of Trustees Statement on Coeducation

Board of Trustees Statement on Coeducation

Farris Hotckiss, secretary to President Wilson, sent letter 23 to the 508 alumni who wrote letters to the University or to the Board of Trustees on the question of coeducation. He said that though the 508 men represent only 3.2% of the entire alumni population, the viewpoints expressed in the letters “gave the Board a comprehensive picture of overall alumni opinion.”

Hotchkiss wrote, “Of the many ways alumni chose to make known their views, there was common agreement that the 508 letters were the most helpful.” Enclosed with the letter was the Board of Trustee’s official statement on the coeducation decision. Hotchkiss sent the 508 alumni advanced copies of the statement because of their interest in W&L and the coeducation study. The statement was published in the Alumni Magazine in the issue following the Board’s July 13-14 meeting.

Anonymous Alumnus A – Letter 20

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 20_RedactedThis Trustee thanks Anonymous Alumnus A for his “very thoughtful  letter.” He says that the Board of Trustees anticipates making a decision at their meeting in July. He states,”At this stage, I am trying to maintain an open mind but, as you [know], the overriding consideration in any decision is to do whatever is necessary to maintain the academic excellence of the Washington and Lee experience.”

Anonymous Alumnus A – Letters 18 and 19

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 18_Redacted

Letter 18

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 19_Redacted

Letter 19

Letter 18 Transcription:

June 1, 1984
Dear [Anonymous Alumnus A],

Thank you for your thoughtful letter about co-education at our alma mater. It is one of the very few in the deluge of mail I have received which is in favor of co-education.

The enclosed copy of my letter [Letter 19] to Mr. Ballengee and other trustees expresses my present position.

I was a member of the Board of Trustees when you were a student, but was retired in 1973.

Sincerely yours,
[Redacted]

Letter 19 addresses James Ballengee, the rector of the Board of Trustees. This Trustee Emeritus suggests that the board should consider postponing taking any action on the coeducation decision.

He expresses three choices that he believes the Board has:

1) “To reject coeducation, realizing of course that it could be brought up again in the future,”

2) “To adopt coeducation, an action which, [he is] convinced, would be irrevocable,”

3) “Delay action”

He writes, “I favor the third alternative, partly because, even with all the evidence at hand, I am not sure we yet know enough to resolve the complex problem. However, my primary reason for advocating delay is the difficulty of reaching a responsible decision in a highly-charged emotional atmosphere and under the pressure of a deadline.”

Anonymous Alumnus A – Letter 11

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 11_RedactedThis Board member thanks the anonymous alumnus for his opinion on the need for coeducation at Washington and Lee. The alumnus believes that coeducation would help the University achieve academic excellence and attract more student-athletes. The Board member reassures the alumnus that the Trustees will keep the alumni informed throughout the process.

Anonymous Alumnus A – Letter 6

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 6_Redacted

Letter 6

A trustee sent Anonymous Alumnus A’s letter back with a handwritten note. The note reads: “7/9 Thank you for your opinion on Coed and your continuing interest in W&L.”

The anonymous alumnus argues that in order to remain competitive for top-tier students in both the academic and athletic sense, the trustee should consider the assistance coeducation would have in accomplishing these goals.

Anonymous Alumnus A – Letters 4 and 5

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 4_Redacted

Letter  4

W&L Anonymous Alum A Letter 5_Redacted

Letter 5

Anonymous Alumnus A sent copies of this letter to each trustee and each trustee emeritus. His primary reason for writing to the trustees was to call attention to the trouble he was having recruiting students from his local area to attend W&L. He wrote, “I have found many apply, become accepted, and then make the decision to go to another institution such as Davidson or Vanderbilt, with the explanation to me that the decision was made to avoid spending four years at a school segregated by sex.”

He concludes his letter with a request: “Please get us back in step with the academic institutions with whom we compete.” Anonymous Alumnus A believed coeducation was a necessary step in the recruitment of top students and pursuit of academic excellence.

Washington & Lee to be Coed, Despite Student, Alumni Cries

Despite Student:Alumni CriesDespite the student and alumni opposition to coeducation by a 2-1 margin, the incoming student body president and the head of the alumni association fully supported the decision. Student body President Cole Dawson believed the pioneering experience would be rewarding for the women and  Charles Hurt, head of the alumni association, believed the uniqueness of the university would not be altered. Since the school would not increase dramatically in size with the initiative, they planned to implement more stringent admissions decisions, contributing to the quality of students at the W&L. After Washington and Lee became a coeducational institute, the only all-male private colleges left in the country were Hampden-Sydney of Virginia and Wabash College of Indiana.

[Source: The Valley Times – July 15, 1984]

 

 

W&L Coeducation Talks Called ‘Intense’

Intense coed talksDiscussion surrounding the coeducation decision was lengthy and heartfelt as the initiative would break the all-male tradition that functions as one of Washington and Lee’s hallmarks. The Board of Trustees considered videotaped interviews of faculty, students, and alumni as well as the results of a survey. The survey revealed that 58.5% of the 6,700 alumni interviewed were opposed to the installment of coeducation at W&L. 28.9% favored coeducation while 10.6% had no opinion. Their analysis included the University Treasurer’s report, which contained financial projections based on the the number of enrolled students. Opponents to the initiative argue that the University should increase recruiting efforts for students rather than admit females in compensation for the school’s dropping numbers and lower academic quality.

[from Special Collections; original source unknown]

Students, Alumni 2-1 Against; Faculty 4-1 For

Student:Alumni and FacultyWashington and Lee University’s decision to go coed was spurred largely by concerns over a shortage of qualified students, but remaining all-male colleges including Wabash College and Hampden-Sydney did not feel similar pressure. W&L had resisted the pressure to go coed since 1888, when the idea was presented in the student magazine, Southern Collegian. President Wilson’s suggestion of opening W&L’s undergraduate school to women was met with stark negativity even though the law school had gone coed in 1972 due to pressure by the American Bar Association. When Wilson became president of the University in 1983, his push to halt a tradition that marked Washington and Lee University as a distinctive school caused his low popularity among students. Bob Jenevein, student body president in 1984, believes that changing the single-sex status at W&L will inevitably alter the spirit of the institute. However, Frank Parsons, Executive Assistant to the past three presidents of W&L, thought that W&L’s character would not change drastically with the initiative. Perhaps, like Wabash College’s spokesman Keen, Parsons realized a single-sex institute is hard to sell, and thus seeks the maintenance of W&L as a unique and academically acclaimed school with a pro-coed stance.

[from Special Collections; original source unknown]

Washington and Lee to Admit Female Undergraduates

To Admit Female UndergradsSurveys administered to the alumni, undergraduates, and faculty of Washington and Lee show 58 percent of alumni opposing the coeducation change, 53 percent undergraduate opposition, and 80 percent faculty approval. The preference of coed schools by both males and females as well as the increasing role of women in society led to the trustees’ decision to implement coeducation at Washington and Lee.

[from Special Collections; original source unknown]

W&L Vote is for Coeducation

Vote for CoeducationThe historical decision for coeducation at Washington and Lee was met with mixed emotions by students, alumni, staff, and faculty. Scott Tilley believes the school will be forever changed, losing its cherished unique qualities with the breaking of the all-male tradition. Other emotional reactions included cheers by staff, faculty, and alumni that were described as pandemonium when they heard of the announcement at 12:50 p.m. on Saturday. No students planned on leaving the University despite their stark opposition to the decision. President Wilson planned to gradually grow the female population to 500 by 1995, comprising about one-third of the undergraduate population. To date, the female population comprises around one-half of the total undergraduate population, proving President Wilson’s success.

[from Special Collections; source unknown]

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers – Letter 6 (Redacted)

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers_Letter 6_Redacted

This letter sent to Trustee Agelasto (incorrectly spelled Agelastro in the letter) discusses strong disdain toward to idea to making W&L coeducational. The author provides three suggestions:

  1. The author proposes “and will be the first to volunteer to contribute, that a one-way ticket back to Lapeer, Michigan, be immediately purchased for Dr. Wilson.”
  2. The author states that the “faculty has put itself on a pedestal and wants to dictate the University’s policies.”
  3. The Board of Trustees should be told that coeducation is very unpopular.

This letter is among the most intense wording among any letter in the archives. It is attached to a Washington Post article citing the decision to allow women into the University Club of Washington, DC.

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers – Letter 4 and 5 (Redacted)

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers_Letter 4_Redacted

Letter 4

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers_Letter 5_Redacted

Letter 5

Letter 4 is a cover letter to Trustee Agelasto. Letter 5 is written from the same individual as the cover letter and discusses his unhappiness with the way that the coeducation decision has been handled thus far. (It had yet to pass at the time of this writing.) He lists why he believes that W&L should not go coeducational (e.g. alumni were largely ignored, alumni survey was biased, and the institution is not in as bad of academic shape as it asserted. The author concludes by saying his loyal donations may not continue in the same way they have before and questions whether W&L “really values its alumni.”

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers – Letter 3 (Redacted)

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers_Letter 3_RedactedTranscription

July 15

[Redacted]

Dear Peter,

Horray! I don’t know how you voted but I am delighted with the decision to take W+L coed. It will take a lot of effort to make it work, but I think it was the only way to maintain academic standards.

I’m ready to redouble my efforts as class agent and do whatever I can to help.

[Redacted] sends best to you and Betsy.

Cheers

[Redacted]

Analysis

An individual writes in support of the decision of the Board of Trustees to begin admitting women to W&L. He/she offers to redouble his/her efforts in serve as a class agent, which is today and was at the time this letter was written a class representative who champions fundraising efforts for one’s own graduating class.

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers – Letter 2

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers_Letter 2_Redacted

In a letter sent directly from the Rector of the Board of Trustees, James M. Ballengee, wrote to “alumni, students, parents, faculty and friends” of the university. He wrote, “the admission of undergraduate women would help ensure that Washington and Lee will maintain its reputation and heritage as one of the finest institutions of higher learning in the United States. He cited that although many alumni were against coeducation, most said they were in favor of coeducation if it saved the university from “academic deterioration.”

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers – Letter 1 (Redacted)

Agelasto Trustee Select Papers_Letter 1_RedactedAn individual commends W&L for going coed. The author affirms Washington and Lee’s tradition, but also cites that the university “will continue to have outstanding leadership and a fertile alumni and constituency from which to draw its student body and future leaders.” The author also recalls the decision of the university to give up “big time football” in 1954 as another time when “students and alumni thought that their Washington and Lee world was coming to an end.”